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8 US Supreme Court cases – Johnson v Texas

https://youtu.be/E5KZj1GWA8g

CAP includes all official, book-published United States case law — every volume designated as an official report of decisions by a court within the United States.

Our scope includes all state courts, federal courts, and territorial courts for American Samoa, Dakota Territory, Guam, Native American Courts, Navajo Nation, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Our earliest case is from 1658, and our most recent cases are from 2018.

Each volume has been converted into structured, case-level data broken out by majority and dissenting opinion, with human-checked metadata for party names, docket number, citation, and date.

We also plan to share (but have not yet published) page images and page-level OCR data for all volumes.

Scope limits

CAP does not include:

  • New cases as they are published. We currently include volumes published through June, 2018, and may or may not include additional volumes in the future.
  • Cases not designated as officially published, such as most lower court decisions.
  • Non-published trial documents such as party filings, orders, and exhibits.
  • Parallel versions of cases from regional reporters, unless those cases were designated by a court as official.
  • Cases officially published in digital form, such as recent cases from Illinois and Arkansas.

Digitization Process

We created this data by digitizing roughly 40 million pages of court decisions contained in roughly 40,000 bound volumes owned by the Harvard Law School Library.

Members of our team created metadata for each volume, including a unique barcode, reporter name, title, jurisdiction, publication date and other volume-level information. We then used a high-speed scanner to produce JP2 and TIF images of every page. A vendor then used OCR to extract the text of every case, creating case-level XML files. Key metadata fields, like case name, citation, court and decision date, were corrected for accuracy, while the text of each case was left as raw OCR output. In addition, for cases from volumes not yet in the public domain, our vendor redacted any headnotes.

Data quality

Our data inevitably includes countless errors as part of the digitization process. 

Some parts of our data are higher quality than others. Case metadata, such as the party names, docket number, citation, and date, has received human review. Case text and general head matter has been generated by machine OCR and has not received human review.

You can report errors of all kinds at our Github issue tracker, where you can also see currently known issues. We particularly welcome metadata corrections, feature requests, and suggestions for large-scale algorithmic changes. We are not currently able to process individual OCR corrections, but welcome general suggestions on the OCR correction process.

Data citation

Data made available through the Caselaw Access Project API and bulk download service is citable. View our suggested citation in these standard formats:

Usage & access

Case metadata, such as the case name, citation, court, date, etc., is freely and openly accessible without limitation. Full case text can be freely viewed or downloaded but you must register for an account to do so, and currently you may view or download no more than 500 cases per day. In addition, research scholars can qualify for bulk data access by agreeing to certain use and redistribution restrictions. You can request a bulk access agreement by creating an account and then visiting your account page.

Access limitations on full text and bulk data are a component of Harvard’s collaboration agreement with Ravel Law, Inc. (now part of Lexis-Nexis). These limitations will end, at the latest, in March of 2024. In addition, these limitations apply only to cases from jurisdictions that continue to publish their official case law in print form. Once a jurisdiction transitions from print-first publishing to digital-first publishing, these limitations cease. Thus far, Illinois and Arkansas have made this important and positive shift and, as a result, all historical cases from these jurisdictions are freely available to the public without restriction. We hope many other jurisdictions will follow their example soon.

Holistic, Post

Holistic Preventive Medicine Can Change Your Life

Holistic medicine is a type of medicine that can work miracles. Holistic medicine is the real medicine, the one with a capital M, and it will be more and more the medicine of the future.

Miracles, therefore, exist and can be reproduced

The term “holistic” comes from the Greek word “holos” which means the whole, the whole, therefore, holistic medicine deals with both the globality of the human being, seen in its different dimensions, and its environment of life and work.

Holistic medicine is the true scientific medicine, because it is the only one that starts from the full awareness that there is no separation between man and nature, between mind and body, between spirit and matter, between science and the unconscious, and it is the only one that knows that nothing happens by chance, that can see the human being in its entirety and in relation to his environment of life and work.

Each individual is not made up of only the body, with the aggravating circumstance often of a body considered isolated from the social and environmental context, as the sick person is often considered in the practice of our current way of doing medicine.

The effectiveness and efficiency in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of any disease, from cancers to cardiovascular diseases, from fractures to the simple cold, is much greater if we do not limit our attention to the single organ or the single disease, but if we are interested in the patient in his entirety and we pay attention to his environment of life and work.

It is certainly not possible to think of treating a symptom or an organ with maximum effectiveness as if they were independent of the rest of the body and the environment.

There are more and more mountains of scientific data showing that the healing rates of all diseases, including cancers, increase considerably with holistic medicine.

One cannot scientifically think of exercising maximum effectiveness in merely treating the sick symptom or organ, as if it were independent of the rest of the body and the environment. This is not only because we must always address the causes of our diseases and symptoms (remove the cause and the effect will disappear), but also because it is much more effective to address the solution of the ailments from a global view of everything.

Holistic medicine: the way to healing

Our body is the sacred place where all interdependencies are narrated and readable, of course with the right preparation.

The health of our planet, our environment, our body, our mind, our spirit, our dreams, the quality of our affective and social relationships are all connected and interdependent.

Often, in order to heal an individual, we need to take care of his erroneous values, his mistaken beliefs, his boredom, his weak objectives, whether non-existent or negative, his pathological affections, his living and working environment, his way of being and living.

Here I will limit myself to dealing with one of the most important aspects of holistic medicine: the relationship between the mind and the body.

Based on my medical knowledge and my long experience as a doctor/oncologist, I am firmly convinced that every human being has within him/herself an energy greater and more surprising than the energy discovered by physicists in the atom, and I am also fully convinced that an important part of this energy can be learned to liberate and control it through the knowledge and awareness of the close relationship between mind and body.

Now, in order to give medicine the possibility to develop its true potential and to work miracles, it is necessary to learn to recover the soul and to see the human being in his specificity, in his globality and in his relationship with the environment of life and work.

In holistic medicine it is important to intervene, at a preventive, diagnostic and curative level, on the different components of the human being and on the different environmental levels.

Within this holistic approach it is clearly understood that the doctor must be open to every branch of knowledge, in order to understand the interdependencies and interactions between human activities, the environment and health.

The environment, in fact, penetrates into us not only with drinks, food and air, but also with sounds, colors, scents, affections, words and becomes part of us.

Even the immaterial environment, therefore, penetrates into us, is transformed and becomes part of us.

For example, words, in addition to changing our brains, change our bodies and leave traces of them. Similarly, emotions, feelings, moods take different forms in different organs and each cell of our body is affected.

Every organ, every cell and every point of our body knows that there is that specific emotion, that particular feeling or state of mind and remembers it.

Dreams, objectives, thoughts, images, emotions, feelings and positive moods inevitably become biochemical, electrochemical and electromagnetic messages corroborating for each cell of our body.