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8 US Supreme Court cases – Johnson v Texas

https://youtu.be/E5KZj1GWA8g

CAP includes all official, book-published United States case law — every volume designated as an official report of decisions by a court within the United States.

Our scope includes all state courts, federal courts, and territorial courts for American Samoa, Dakota Territory, Guam, Native American Courts, Navajo Nation, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Our earliest case is from 1658, and our most recent cases are from 2018.

Each volume has been converted into structured, case-level data broken out by majority and dissenting opinion, with human-checked metadata for party names, docket number, citation, and date.

We also plan to share (but have not yet published) page images and page-level OCR data for all volumes.

Scope limits

CAP does not include:

  • New cases as they are published. We currently include volumes published through June, 2018, and may or may not include additional volumes in the future.
  • Cases not designated as officially published, such as most lower court decisions.
  • Non-published trial documents such as party filings, orders, and exhibits.
  • Parallel versions of cases from regional reporters, unless those cases were designated by a court as official.
  • Cases officially published in digital form, such as recent cases from Illinois and Arkansas.

Digitization Process

We created this data by digitizing roughly 40 million pages of court decisions contained in roughly 40,000 bound volumes owned by the Harvard Law School Library.

Members of our team created metadata for each volume, including a unique barcode, reporter name, title, jurisdiction, publication date and other volume-level information. We then used a high-speed scanner to produce JP2 and TIF images of every page. A vendor then used OCR to extract the text of every case, creating case-level XML files. Key metadata fields, like case name, citation, court and decision date, were corrected for accuracy, while the text of each case was left as raw OCR output. In addition, for cases from volumes not yet in the public domain, our vendor redacted any headnotes.

Data quality

Our data inevitably includes countless errors as part of the digitization process. 

Some parts of our data are higher quality than others. Case metadata, such as the party names, docket number, citation, and date, has received human review. Case text and general head matter has been generated by machine OCR and has not received human review.

You can report errors of all kinds at our Github issue tracker, where you can also see currently known issues. We particularly welcome metadata corrections, feature requests, and suggestions for large-scale algorithmic changes. We are not currently able to process individual OCR corrections, but welcome general suggestions on the OCR correction process.

Data citation

Data made available through the Caselaw Access Project API and bulk download service is citable. View our suggested citation in these standard formats:

Usage & access

Case metadata, such as the case name, citation, court, date, etc., is freely and openly accessible without limitation. Full case text can be freely viewed or downloaded but you must register for an account to do so, and currently you may view or download no more than 500 cases per day. In addition, research scholars can qualify for bulk data access by agreeing to certain use and redistribution restrictions. You can request a bulk access agreement by creating an account and then visiting your account page.

Access limitations on full text and bulk data are a component of Harvard’s collaboration agreement with Ravel Law, Inc. (now part of Lexis-Nexis). These limitations will end, at the latest, in March of 2024. In addition, these limitations apply only to cases from jurisdictions that continue to publish their official case law in print form. Once a jurisdiction transitions from print-first publishing to digital-first publishing, these limitations cease. Thus far, Illinois and Arkansas have made this important and positive shift and, as a result, all historical cases from these jurisdictions are freely available to the public without restriction. We hope many other jurisdictions will follow their example soon.

Post, Probiotics

How Probiotics Can Improve Health

Yogurt probiotics are well known, but perhaps not everyone knows that they are fundamental and essential to health. Probiotics are not an expedient or a fashion, but an element of extreme importance for physical well-being. Can’t you believe it? Ask your gastroenterologist! Some small ulcers of the stomach and intestines can be caused by the lack of these microorganisms. All gastroenterologists recommend their intake on a daily basis, because not only are they recommended for treating any digestive problem, but they are also essential for overall health.

kesehatan
здравље
здоровье
kesihatan
בריאות
здароўе
υγεία
ден соолук
gezondheid
helse

Here are some tips that are useful to increase the benefits of these microorganisms: although they are the subject of numerous researches, still have not been given exact indications about their intake, the advice of many studies is to take probiotics on an empty stomach at least 30 minutes before a meal, usually before breakfast.

When you eat, stomach acid and bile are secreted to dissolve the food. Stomach acid often destroys a lot of good and bad bacterial flora, so to allow these delicate bacterial cultures to reach the intestine you need to take the probiotic with food.

ჯანმრთელობის
salute
صحت
hauora
veselība
sức khỏe
денсаулық
առողջություն
健康
salud

It is also advisable to take foods such as artichoke, garlic, onions, bananas, asparagus and chicory, all composed of insoluble fibers that are an excellent means of transporting the probiotic from the stomach to the intestine. A diet rich in fiber can therefore promote the proliferation of these microorganisms, on the contrary a diet rich in fat and excessive consumption of red meat can alter our microbiota.

සෞඛ්ය
sveikata
sundhed
hälsa
zdravlje
건강
zdraví
sănătate
sağlamlıq
சுகாதார
الصحة
zdravlje

Only the skin and digestive system are home to about 2000 different types of bacteria. Probiotics are among the proven benefits:

  • Supporting the immune system
  • anti-inflammatory function
  • promote digestion

saúde
santé
tenduristiyê
sağlık
egészség
здраве
សុខភាព
Gesundheit
саломатӣ
kalusugan

Probiotics are present in our bodies from the moment we are born. More than a century ago, the Russian Nobel Prize for Medicine, Il’ja Mečnikov, theorized that “health could be improved and senility delayed by manipulating the intestinal microbiome thanks to the bacteria housed in the yogurt”. Mečnikov was ahead of its time. Today, unfortunately, due to different practices of food preservation, such as treatment with chlorine, most of the foods that reach our tables are virtually free or contain very few probiotics, indeed many foods contain dangerous antibiotics that kill our intestinal flora.

здоров’я
terveys
स्वास्थ्य
zdrowie
zdravje
สุขภาพ
zdravie
health
tervis

In addition to the impact on our immune system, in fact, our digestive systems play a fundamental role in the neurological system. It’s called the enteric nervous system and it’s right in the intestine. This is why the intestine is also called the “second brain”. The intestine, in fact, is responsible for the production of 94% of serotonin and can have a significant impact on brain function and mood.

Many health problems, such as thyroid imbalances, chronic fatigue, joint pain, psoriasis and autism, are linked to intestinal function.

So, what are the essential elements for digestive health? The secret to digestive health is to balance good and bad intestinal bacteria. A healthy life is certainly related to the daily consumption of foods and supplements rich in probiotics, as proven by many studies conducted. Other factors contribute to regulating our microbiota, including: the type of breastfeeding, eating habits, physical activity and stress.

Holistic, Post

Holistic Preventive Medicine Can Change Your Life

Holistic medicine is a type of medicine that can work miracles. Holistic medicine is the real medicine, the one with a capital M, and it will be more and more the medicine of the future.

Miracles, therefore, exist and can be reproduced

The term “holistic” comes from the Greek word “holos” which means the whole, the whole, therefore, holistic medicine deals with both the globality of the human being, seen in its different dimensions, and its environment of life and work.

Holistic medicine is the true scientific medicine, because it is the only one that starts from the full awareness that there is no separation between man and nature, between mind and body, between spirit and matter, between science and the unconscious, and it is the only one that knows that nothing happens by chance, that can see the human being in its entirety and in relation to his environment of life and work.

Each individual is not made up of only the body, with the aggravating circumstance often of a body considered isolated from the social and environmental context, as the sick person is often considered in the practice of our current way of doing medicine.

The effectiveness and efficiency in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of any disease, from cancers to cardiovascular diseases, from fractures to the simple cold, is much greater if we do not limit our attention to the single organ or the single disease, but if we are interested in the patient in his entirety and we pay attention to his environment of life and work.

It is certainly not possible to think of treating a symptom or an organ with maximum effectiveness as if they were independent of the rest of the body and the environment.

There are more and more mountains of scientific data showing that the healing rates of all diseases, including cancers, increase considerably with holistic medicine.

One cannot scientifically think of exercising maximum effectiveness in merely treating the sick symptom or organ, as if it were independent of the rest of the body and the environment. This is not only because we must always address the causes of our diseases and symptoms (remove the cause and the effect will disappear), but also because it is much more effective to address the solution of the ailments from a global view of everything.

Holistic medicine: the way to healing

Our body is the sacred place where all interdependencies are narrated and readable, of course with the right preparation.

The health of our planet, our environment, our body, our mind, our spirit, our dreams, the quality of our affective and social relationships are all connected and interdependent.

Often, in order to heal an individual, we need to take care of his erroneous values, his mistaken beliefs, his boredom, his weak objectives, whether non-existent or negative, his pathological affections, his living and working environment, his way of being and living.

Here I will limit myself to dealing with one of the most important aspects of holistic medicine: the relationship between the mind and the body.

Based on my medical knowledge and my long experience as a doctor/oncologist, I am firmly convinced that every human being has within him/herself an energy greater and more surprising than the energy discovered by physicists in the atom, and I am also fully convinced that an important part of this energy can be learned to liberate and control it through the knowledge and awareness of the close relationship between mind and body.

Now, in order to give medicine the possibility to develop its true potential and to work miracles, it is necessary to learn to recover the soul and to see the human being in his specificity, in his globality and in his relationship with the environment of life and work.

In holistic medicine it is important to intervene, at a preventive, diagnostic and curative level, on the different components of the human being and on the different environmental levels.

Within this holistic approach it is clearly understood that the doctor must be open to every branch of knowledge, in order to understand the interdependencies and interactions between human activities, the environment and health.

The environment, in fact, penetrates into us not only with drinks, food and air, but also with sounds, colors, scents, affections, words and becomes part of us.

Even the immaterial environment, therefore, penetrates into us, is transformed and becomes part of us.

For example, words, in addition to changing our brains, change our bodies and leave traces of them. Similarly, emotions, feelings, moods take different forms in different organs and each cell of our body is affected.

Every organ, every cell and every point of our body knows that there is that specific emotion, that particular feeling or state of mind and remembers it.

Dreams, objectives, thoughts, images, emotions, feelings and positive moods inevitably become biochemical, electrochemical and electromagnetic messages corroborating for each cell of our body.

Post, Vitamins

How Vitamins Can Improve Your Overall Health

We all go through moments of study and intense work, where concentration is lacking while things to remember abound. When memory is put to the test and the study becomes urgent, some vitamins and minerals can be useful to boys to combat stress from examination and avoid attacks of anxiety that lead to the stars nervousness and tension.

Memory and concentration are largely and primarily dependent on nutrition. The first step to improving the general health level and having a good university performance with a good memory efficiency and ability to concentrate is breakfast: it must be rich and balanced, balanced between proteins and carbohydrates and must include fruits and vegetables (as well as all meals of the day). Carbohydrates, then, give energy to the brain: so it is good to consume rice and pasta during the day, but without exaggerating in the portions. It is better to leave aside sweetened drinks, snacks, refined cereals and various sweets. Yes to oilseeds such as almonds and walnuts and yes also to berries that have excellent antioxidant capacity and support brain functions.

In view of an intense period of study, the site saperesalute.it provides some useful information to make the brain more “efficient”. Take a good mix of vitamins and minerals, for example.

B vitamins

Includes vitamins B1, B2, B3 or vitamin PP, B5, B6, B8 or vitamin H, B9 and B12. Each of them has specific characteristics, but overall they convert carbohydrates and fats into energy for the brain and participate in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, improving the ability to attention. They are found in milk and dairy products, eggs, meat, legumes, oilseeds, potatoes and peas.

Vitamin C

An antioxidant par excellence, it combats the excess of free radicals and reduces the risk of cognitive deficits, such as memory loss. It is found in citrus fruits and green leafy vegetables.

Iron

It carries oxygen, which is essential for the brain. Its deficiency is frequently associated with low school yields and adversely affects mental activity. It is found in liver, eggs, meat, soya, fish, chicory. Its absorption is improved by the association with foods rich in vitamin C.

Omega-3

Sometimes included in vitamin F, they are essential fatty acids for the body, able to improve reading and writing and the ability to concentrate. They are found in fish, especially salmon, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, rocket and pumpkin seeds.

Calcium

It is a valuable aid to concentration, attention and memory. It is present in milk, yoghurt, cheese, green leafy vegetables, beans, peas, sardines, salmon.

Magnesium

Maintains a high level of attention, especially when associated with vitamin B6. The richest foods are nuts, pistachios, brown rice, wholemeal and white flour, soya.

Zinc

It increases both memory and concentration levels. The main sources of zinc are represented by meat, eggs, milk, mature cheeses, fish, whole grains.

If a healthy diet and good physical activity do not help to overcome fatigue, drowsiness and difficulty in concentrating in the study, you can use a supplement. Royal jelly, for example, is rich in protein and can improve brain activity. It may also be useful to take advantage of supplements that contain pollen (rich in vitamins A, C, D, E, and is a source of B vitamins). But it is also useful to take advantage of the benefits offered by polyvitamins – writes the website saperesalute.it -: there are some designed specifically for men, which contain a balanced mix of vitamins, minerals and choline.